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# How to Prepare the first thermometer? | Inventions

## How the first thermometer made? You must be at least once in your life wondering, What if something is hot? Or Do I know how much is this cold? If you are interested in the heat, you can imagine just how ¬ alloys have questions connection with the warmth of the scientists interested in: but the first step in developing the science of heat is to find ways to measure the heat

You must have at least once in your life wondering, What if something is hot? Or Do I know how much is this cold? If you are interested in the heat, you can imagine just how ¬ alloys have questions about the warmth that interested scientists ! A first step in developing the science of heat is to find ways to measure heat. It is therefore invented a thermometer or a thermometer. Thermo means heat and meter means measure. So, a thermometer or a thermometer measures the heat.
first condition of the thermometer is still in the same way means the same temperature. With this in mind, the Italian scientist Galileo began to make experiments around 1592., a hundred years before Columbus discovered America. Galileo made a kind of thermometer, which is called air thermoscope.
It was a glass tube with a hollow sphere at the end, where it was air. tube and ball are heated so that the air inside expanded, and then the open end of pipe previously placed in a liquid, for example water.
As the air in the tube cooled, its volume is reduced, and the liquid has penetrated into the tube instead. Thus, changes in temperature could see the lifting or lowering the level of fluid in the pipe. Well, it was the first a thermometer to measure heat. But do not forget that it is measured by measuring the heat expansion and contraction of air in the pipes, and soon discovered that one of the problems associated with it as it is influenced by differences in atmospheric pressure and that because he is not quite accurate.
thermometer, what we use today is based on the expansion and contraction of liquid sealed in a glass ball, which is attached a thin tube. At higher temperatures, the liquid expands and rises in the tube, while Certainly think that the invention of modern man tunnel. However, construction of tunnels and their construction is actually one of the oldest engineering affairs of mankind.
Even the ancients knew to build a tunnel, and many of them did extremely skillfully. Even thousands of years ago tunnels were built by the Egyptians, the inhabitants of India, Assyrians, Greeks and Romans. | Of course, today is the construction of the tunnel completely different thing. Thanks to modern equipment, tunnels much faster, safer and easier to break than they did our ancestors. Engineers are usually divided into two types of tunnels: tunnels in the rocks and tunnels in the country. One of the most important invention in connection with tunneling is tunnel shield the English engineer Isambard Kingdoma Brunela. With this invention, without the danger can dig a tunnel under water. Modern tunnel shield is actually a steel roller that snaps into the forehead of the future tunnel. The front roller is a strong blade. The shield is pushed forward through the ground with powerful machines. People dig the ground in front of the cylinder, while others build the inner wall of the tunnel behind the back of the roller. Where necessary, you can use tight - compressed - air to straighten the pressure at great depths. The first step in building the tunnel geological tests to find the best places to build the tunnel. When you determine the size and shape of the tunnel, on paper plotting the central line of the tunnel. The beginning and end of the future tunnel marked on the ground. After that it starts with the digging of the tunnel.

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