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What did the Greek cities? | History

What did the Greek cities? Historians of Ancient Greece is considered the foundational culture of Western civilization

Ancient Greece historians believe the foundational culture of Western civilization. Greek culture had a strong influence in the Roman Empire, over which later spread to other parts of Europe. Ancient Greek civilization is largely influenced by the language, politics, education, philosophy, art and architecture of the modern world, especially during the Renaissance in Western Europe and again during various neo-Classical revivals in 18th and 19th century throughout the western part of the world. | first century Greek civilization as we know little. only written traces of the time found in the myths and legends that have gathered poets such as Hesiod and Homer. Homers Iliad, poem which is sung unusually long war between the Greeks and Trojans, rich in detail from the lives and customs of the time, and describes the aristocratic society in which government was in the hands of the few warrior princes and nobles. Archaeology, thanks to the discovery of ancient Troy Schliemannovu in 20 . century, proved that the Homeric spjevovima, under the mythological and legendary stories, hiding many historical facts. They will confirm the discovery of the remains of ancient cities saw, Tirinta and Mycenae, royal palaces, gigantic girded by stone walls and magnificent tombs of rich dishes and gold . Every Greek city or polis was independent center of political, cultural and commercial life. He was surrounded by walls, had a place for the last defense of the Acropolis, and on it were the supreme deities of the temples are located. Every town had a square - Agora , which is used for commercial activities and meetings.
In Greece there were many city-states: Corinth, a city of trade, Delphi, Thebes, and the most important to mention Sparta and Athens. These two cities were quite different and among them enmity prevailed. Athens was democratic. It was the home of artists and philosophers. Sparta was ruled nobles, and all citizens are worried about creating a strong and powerful army.
Greek cities were often at war with each other. Athens Sparta are known by the Peloponnesian War from 431st to 404th before Christ, exhausting conflict which ended in short-term victory of Sparta and its domination.
Spartas victory was temporary because, after a brief period of peace, conquered all the cities Macedonians. Chaeronea in the 338th year before Christ, the other led Philip of Macedon, father of the famous Alexander, the Macedonian phalanx defeated by the Greeks, creating a vast empire. This defeat proved how important he was a military organization, because the Macedonian phalanx, with 16 ranks of soldier with spears, forced to retreat and defeat distraught Greek units.

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