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ČEHOSLOVAČKA decay, history
How Čehoslovaci proved that the Earth is round? So what suimperijaliste expelled 1945th west 1968th greeted with East gorkosu be joking Czechs and Slovaks after the suppression of the Prague Spring in ljeto1968. Years
As Čehoslovaci proven to jezemlja round? So what are the , gray , unimpressive country Lager.
Central is Czech Republic was one of the most polluted regions in Europe. circulated heating were given the cheapest of brown coal. Siviloživota was even uglier because of the stench, dying 35 percent šuma.Ekologija thus became one of the areas of action civilnogdruštva. dissatisfaction and resistance that would be expected were still faint often barely visible, restricted to a small circle of true disidenata.Najpoznatiji was the playwright Vaclav Havel.
Only After standing 1975th Final Declaration was signed in Helsinki, which are nacionalnazakonodavstva all European countries included the principles of UN ljudskimpravima, a group of individuals decided to publicly criticize čehoslovačkevlasti you do not adhere to the signed.
When čovjekponaša in accordance with a conscience, when trying to speak the truth and when senastoji behave as a citizen, and when it is completely canceled, all tomože, although not necessarily, lead somewhere. What certainly never nećedovesti anywhere is when one calculates, pondering whether neštonekamo water, wrote Vaclav Havel. With Peter Uhla, Trotskyists, and VaclavaBendu, Catholic intellectuals, the 7th January 1977. core izadokumenta was published in West German newspapers. Charter potpisalesu 77 243 persons, and later they joined another 1621st They were hrabripojedinci, but in country of 15 million people without the media and the Zapadkoji was interested in the status quo, everything seemed potezočajnika.
Official state media called Charter 77 anti-state, anti-socialist, demagogic pamphlet. Signed essary traitors , imperialist agents, failed politicians. O Seu their country anyway not heard virtually nothing. regime is not shook, but jesačuvan cheek. Changes in the whole Eastern European stock donijelidisidenti not, nor communist reformers. First moraoistrošiti regime, and opened only with changes in Moscow.
Gorbachev encourages change
When he finally Mikhail Gorbachev was elected general secretary of the CPSU, during the tour of the country surprised the general dysfunction, supruziRaisi said that this will not be able to continue. glasnost and perestrojkazakotrljale changes in Europe.
First, još1988., General Jaruzelski in Poland agreed with the union Solidarity. In the summer of 1989. In Poland are organized elections, created mixed with noncommunist government reporter TadeuszomMazowieckim headed. Hungarians changes were introduced from the top. Already in ožujku1989. allowed multi-party and free elections. In October, the party went izkomunističke reformists and formed socijalističkustranku.
The hardest part was in Berlin and Prague. In September 1989.istočnonjemački chief Erich Honecker introduced a ban on travel to Hungary istočnimNijemcima, as thousands across the open border went naZapad. As if nothing happens, eastern Germans October 6 1989.slavili formation GDR. Mikhail Gorbachev suggested Honecker daotpočne with the reforms, because it Otherwise, run over time. Nijemacje Russian criticism suppressed.
Soviet shops were completely empty, this rule the country and ask that perestroika is uzornajuspješnijim stock holdings, it was almost nepristojno.Promjene have suggested the Czechs and Slovaks, because their odlaganjestvaralo situation that could explode. Moreover, the sovjetskojje television to mark the 20th anniversary of suffocation from the Prague Spring, Alexander Dubcek prikazanrazgovor.
Milos Jakes, head of čehoslovačkepartije end of 1987th, was not in a hurry. He was energetic odpredsjednika Gustav Husak, but also contributes to the čvrstorukaškupolitiku seventies. in January 1989. again at three months, closed Vaclav Havel. With 13 was minded to come Vaclavskenamjesti in Prague to mark the anniversary samospaljivanja Jana Palacha.Čehoslovačke secret services were aware of the danger. General AlojzLorenc created Plan a wedge that the opposition groups trebalerazbijati. nonparty to be separated from the former Communists, umedijima should be systematically discredited and green clericalists. cases is still too late. In November 1989th Wedge was abandoned. bioneostaljinistički regime, Czechs and Slovaks quieter than others in stock, but were not posvemirni. different, even cases of mass disobedience to fuck, but the changes in Europe in Prague did not feel particularly intense.
In the spring 1988th half a million citizens signed a petition vlastimada fill in the blank and allow the Catholic Diocese of printing. created the John Lennon Peace Club. in March 1989. Catholic aktivistFrantišek Mikloška in Bratislava organized a half-hour demonstracijetražeći religious freedom. Despite the ban, ten thousand yen Slovaks came out of the street with candles in their hands. Police acted, hundreds jeuhapšeno. demonstrated powders mother and ecologists.
Rights are sepromjene in Prague took place just after the Wall came down November 9 Then sučak and Bulgarians during a meeting of the Politburo replaced Todor Živkovareformiranim Communist Petar Mladenov. same now as it pokrenuliČesi and Slovaks. With the permission of the police November 17 sustudentske demonstrations organized to mark 50 years since the murder of Jana braided, a student who was killed by the Germans. all turned into anti-government, anti-communist protests. Students have strayed from the agreed route, the police busted them. It spread false news that once again, as odnacista in the war, killed a student. Anger and shame in many court did awaken the spirit of 68. Sixty-eight seemed written just kaoosamdeset ninth. Philharmonic Orchestra has played for the crowd. Maasai rang keys and shouting anti-communist slogans of the last bell.
government began to melt. Milos Jakes jeodstupio. Prime Minister, Communist reformer, Ladislav Adamec, no matter how jeu another time could probably be greeted as great hopes, now abandoned, and before he could do anything. Vaclav Havel 19th November he returned to Prague from house arrest in the countryside. gdjeje created in the theater office, Civic Forum, the opposition around the embryo Havel, radioje the future of government programs.
entire party leadership odstupio25. November the same day the first time, Havel spoke to nacionalnojteleviziji. In the central square was enthusiastically greeted Dubcek, although his sentence sounded disappointingly, is exactly the same ones iz1968. year.
Hundreds of thousands of empty and still gather naulicama, not requiring anything special. Just wanted to do what they could not long percentage. collected mostly after završiloradno time. Even the two-hour general strike called November 27 was brushing breaks lunch. Moscow, initially nervous, izdatiispriku was ready for occupation in 1968. Hope is in a transition that would not posveponištila Soviet influence and the results of the Cold War almost posvenestala, Gorbachev destroyed the idea of reforming Europe, ugrozilanjega and country led.
Back in Europe
After the general strike in Prague Prime Minister resigned Adamec.Prijelaznu government of national reconciliation was created December 10 MarijanČalfa. Then he departed and Gustav Husak. Dubcek on 28 December postaopredsjednik National Assembly, which is A day later, the day that the peak jezapravo Velvet Revolution, Havel appointed predsjednikom.Iz prison was released 16 000 political prisoners. načelaGrađanskog main forum, which is next year won the election, tražilasu, unless free elections, rule of law, social justice, čistiokoliš, educated population, wealth and return to Europe.
two decades since the Velvet Revolution and the Slovak velvet divorce sČesima 31. December 1993., retired President Havel, ivećina just like people, can be satisfied. it is sad that President današnjičeški Vaclav Klaus, the first Minister of Finance demokratskeČehoslovačke not believe that the principles of the Civic Forum could be poželjnai others, those who are not yet in Europe, who are fighting for boljeobrazovanje and the rule of law, and certainly well-being., such, for example, the Croats, but when they had a velvet revolution, have pravona other dreams. |