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Tuberculosis or TB is a disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The bacteria primarily affect the lungs, although it can affect virtually any organ: the lymph nodes, skin, brain, bones and joints, digestive, urinary and genital system.
Tuberculosis is a droplet infection and spread from patients to healthy people through the air. Bacteria are found in tiny droplets that occur as a spray when an infected person coughs, sneezes or speaks. People who are in close contact can inhale these droplets and become infected se.Pojam infection indicates a positive tuberculin skin test and no signs of disease. When we talk about the current (developed) diseases, meaning that the present clinical, radiological and laboratory signs, and the disease may be pulmonary and extrapulmonary.
What causes TB?
TB is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. The complex includes M. tuberculosis, M. africanum (primarily derived from people) and M. bovis (primarily from cattle). The most common cause of tuberculosis in the world of M. tuberculosis.
M. africanum appear in West Africa. Sometimes the cause of bovine tuberculosis (M. bovis) infection often caused by cattle in Europe and America. Infection is transmitted to man through milk. Because the control of animal tuberculosis and milk pasteurization, M. bovis is rarely seen as a cause of TB.
Nontuberculous mycobacteria include a number of bacterial species. Many are harmless. Are common in countries with high prevalence of TB, but rarely cause disease.
How is it spread?
TB is a respiratory droplets spread from patients to healthy people through the air. People who are in close contact can inhale these droplets and infect it. Inhalation of infected droplets, TBC bacteria gets into the lungs and multiplies there. From the lungs, it can empty the blood and other body parts such as kidneys, spine or brain.
Pulmonary TB or laryngeal TB is contagious, which means that it can spread to other people. Patients with active TB disease are usually people with whom they typically spend a definite period (family members, friends and colleagues at work). Extrapulmonary tuberculosis that affects such as kidney or brain usually not contagious to others. Urine and other secretions can theoretically be a source of infection, but rarely, usually because they contain a relatively small number of bacteria.
Patients with active disease are contagious for several weeks after they started the appropriate treatment. Therefore, the proper treatment of all positive patients, the best measure to prevent the spread of tuberculosis. If treatment is not as certain therapeutic regimen, the disease may recur and the patient may again become virulent.
TB caused by M. bovis is usually caused by consuming unpasteurized milk or dairy Condiments, and sometimes are transmitted by air to the people who work with livestock.