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Ultrasound of the neck
Ultrasound is the first, and often the only imaging Search techniques which are examined organs and soft tissues of the head and neck ...
Otolaryngology, as well as medical and surgical specialist branch of medicine, meets with the current trend of rapid progress of biomedical science and the technology supporting them inseparable. They all open new perspectives in the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to diseases of the ear, nose, throat and neck.
When diagnosing diseases of the head and neck is available to us several different imaging examinations (classic X-ray, CT - computed tomography, NMR - nuclear magnetic resonance) that accurately show all the important organs that we observe, while giving a detailed analysis of possible pathological changes and conditions. Some of these methods have historically confirmed and have a firm place in clinical practice, some of which are still subject to assessment and training, thanks to the inevitable progress of technology.
Ultrasound, with the already known applications in different fields as a diagnostic and interventional therapeutic method, has recently been interest in the head and neck (otorhinolaryngology, neurology, ophthalmology).
Method of diagnostic ultrasound in medicine, including otorhinolaryngology, great value and applicability to thank the physical characteristics of ultrasonic waves (showing the possibility of living tissue), noninvasive for the patient and the relative availability (ultrasound device is mobile and customizable filters and the general condition of the patient).
Therefore, it is the first, and often the only imaging Search techniques which are examined organs and soft tissues of the head and neck.
It is important to mention that the ultrasound scan is not harmful to the ionizing radiation, which is a valuable feature because search can be repeated without fear of radiation to the patient and doctor. This fact is especially important for vulnerable populations, especially children and pregnant women.
Diagnostic and therapeutic evaluation
In everyday practice, ENT virtually no area where we Ultrasound is not helpful in diagnosis, choice of therapeutic approach or treatment of a patient after treatment. Overview of head and neck of the soft parts of the ultrasound is useful in various pathological conditions:
- Diseases of the thyroid gland (ultrasound is most useful and indispensable diagnostic method practically all thyroid disease, diffuse disease of inflammation, and various nodular, that knot changes and tumor) - pathology doštitnih (parathyroid) gland, various diseases of the nose and paranasal sinuses (acute or chronic inflammation - sinusitis, allergic rhinitis, tumors) - enlarged lymph nodes (estimate the importance of changes in lymph nodes is one of the most common search), various cysts (eg branhiogene) and other soft tissue changes, pathological changes in the salivary glands (acute or chronic inflammation , Sialolithiasis - stones, tumors) - clinically ambiguous changes of the soft parts of the head and neck (neck conditions such as swelling, abscess, hematoma, foreign body) - pathological changes of language and the bottom of the oral cavity (inflammation, tumors, the mechanisms of swallowing).
In clinical practice, using the ultrasonic apparatus of many world-renowned manufacturer of medical technology. There has been a great number of different configurations to choose the field. Ultrasonic sensors are the heart of such appliances. Using the high-frequency transducer (5-12 MHz), which allow better resolution of details in the image, but in practice we use the highest frequencies that are sufficiently penetrating through the tissue.
The great advantage of the possibility of additional diagnostic ultrasound Doppler analysis of blood vessels in patients with primary diseases of the blood vessel (aneurysm, vascular tumors, atherosclerosis) in patients with malignant head and neck tumors.
Rapid Interpretation of findings
Ultrasonography of the head and neck is performed outpatient basis, with the help of the most sensitive and najbitnijeg apparatus, ie the ultrasound probe, and after application of ultrasound gel to the skin area considered (the face or neck). During the review, we get the image on the monitor, we can immediately interpret and make conclusions about the findings.
Search is very elegant and comfortable and does not require any prior preparation of the patient. The quality of the search depends on the experience of physicians and aptness, and equally on the technical characteristics of ultrasound equipment.
As a typical example of ultrasound, it is worth mentioning the application of ultrasound in the diagnosis of diseases of the nose and paranasal sinuses. With the aforementioned advantages (non-toxicity, use in pregnant women and children), ultrasound has a special place in the early diagnosis as a supplement to a complete otorhinolaryngological examination, followed by re-examining the case already Terms matched inflammatory changes in the ordinary X-ray of the sinus, as well as monitoring progression or regression of inflammatory changes.
Lymph nodes are usually changes in the surface of the soft tissues of the neck. The importance of altered lymph nodes and their timely and accurate disclosure illustrates the fact that in the head and neck have about 75 lymph nodes on each side of the door!
Ultrasound typically place has changed in inflamed lymph nodes, if they do not decrease despite treatment (eg acute bacterial and viral infections, and specific chronic inflammation) and the early detection of metastases of malignant head and neck tumors. That ultrasound has great therapeutic and prognostic importance for the safety detection of metastases in the lymph nodes. In this way helps us in making parts, our clinicians are important, TNM classification of tumors of the head and neck.
Sure is worth mentioning that the impact of ultrasound in monitoring postoperative chemotherapy or radiotherapy of cancer patients provides a valuable assessment of the dynamics of response to treatment that is in progress or has just ended. For evaluation of lymph node enlargement in all these cases it is essential to serial ultrasonic monitoring of patients.
This view is only a small cross-section illustrations and possibilities of application of ultrasonic methods in the head and neck, with no intention to deal with all the interesting areas. It is not possible due to the constant progress of radiological techniques, as well as other medical knowledge and its application.
However, from this one can discern the importance of this method. Ultrasound diagnosis should become a regular part of the mandatory diagnostics, such as otolaryngology clinicians general practitioners, who with little education and a lot of interest and experience can best take advantage of these methods and thus improve the quality of work, with better and more complete treatment for the benefit of patients.