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What is Intelligence

There are many definitions of intelligence, but conventional wisdom is that its mental characteristics, which includes new situations, ability to learn based on experience, understanding and use of abstract concepts



Is our intelligence written in the genes? This question is the subject of discussion that took place among scientists, but also in public. The debate about whether intelligence is innate or can be acquired through education (vs. nature. Nurture) began in earnest more since 1869. when it was Darwins cousin Francis Galton, the founder of eugenics, published a book "Hereditary Genius." Galton has researched the origins of prominent people, and then realized that the tendency to a talent repeatedly appears in the same families. Thus, he concluded that the inherent talent and not stečen.No recent years, scientists have identified several genes associated with intelligence. Although it is known that all the way genes influence the development of intelligence, these findings attracted great public pozorost, but evoke the ethical dilemmas that in future parents with the help of genetic manipulation could "create" intelligent children .- I think it is important to realize that the genetic influence is important. So we try to find genes that are associated with intelligence - said in the magazine Scientific American, Dr. Robert Plomin, a geneticist from the behavior of the Institute of Psychiatry in London. He is one of the pioneers of "gene hunting intelligence," and his work is based on studies of identical twins. Intelligence is measured by the so-called. IQ tests in 1905. was developed by French psychologist Alfred Binet in order to predict the success of children in school and to identify those kids who will need special learning pomoć.Jedna of the biggest controversies related to the IQ test relates to the differences in IQ that are observed among different ethnic groups. These differences first carefully researched American psychologist Arthur Jensen of the University of Berkeley who in 1969. The realization that African American children have an average IQ 85, while white children had the 100th Jensen concluded that it is largely hereditary, which caused a scandal and protests, and critics have argued that the difference in IQ scores of different growing conditions. The role of genes and environment To elucidate the role of genes and environment in shaping the intelligence of the sixties, scientists began to study twins. In fact, identical twins share the same genes. Suppose that a pair of identical twins separated at birth, and that they have adopted different parents, which means that in this case share the same genes but different environments. If genes have no influence, we can expect that the results of their IQ test will not show similarity. However, if genes play a key role to their test results should be similar .- Identical twins, who grew up separately, according to test results that are similar to each other almost as much as identical twins who grew up together - said that Plomin and his collaborators in the study of early development of twins analyzed 15,000 children and 7500 pairs of twins born between 1994th and 1996. year. Thousands of genes Up to 16 years of age adopted children have IQs similar to their biological parents to the extent that they have children who grow up with their parents - said Plomin. His study showed that the mental abilities of a talent for mathematics and reading in large part determined the same set of genes. - If someone is above average in math, then the 70-percent chance that his ability to read also be above average - said Plomin.On and his colleagues last year identified six genes that are strongly associated with high or low intelligence. However, all six genes together are responsible for more than one percent difference in intelligence in this group. This, in turn, suggests that intelligence is mental ability that is much more complex than previously thought. Many scientists now believe that intelligence is a result of joint activities thousand genes, and that will be long before you understand how they all interact.




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